India – The Land Of Diversities
India's topography is diverse. Huge rivers originating from the snow clad mountains and discharging into the sea after flowing through vast plains, expansive agricultural plains, extensive plateaus, scorching deserts, elongated coastal plains, a number of islands. The diversities of our country are really enchanting.
NOTES IN DETAIL
* The mountain ranges starting from the north west of Kashmir and extending up to the eastern boundary of India is known as the Northern Mountains.
* The Northern Mountains that function as a great wall can be classified into the Trans Himalayas, Himalayas and the Eastern Highlands
* Trans Himalayas include Karakoram, Ladakh, and Zaskar mountain ranges.
* Mount K2 (8661 m) also known as Godwin Austin, the highest peak in India, is in the Karakoram range
* The Himalayan mountain range forms an arc shaped physical division extending between the north - west trans-himalayas and the south-east eastern highlands.
* The height of these mountains tend to decrease towards the east.
* Comprises three parallel mountain ranges.
* The highest mountain range.
* Average altitude is 6000 metres.
* Origin of the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra.
* Has a number of peaks above 8000 metres
* Situated to the south of the Himadri.
* Average altitude is 3000 metres.
* The hill stations like Shimla, Darjeeling, etc. are situated in the southern slopes of this range.
* Situated to the south of the Himachal.
* Average altitude is 1220 metres.
* As the Himalayan rivers cut across this range, its continuity breaks at many places.
* Broad flat valleys seen along these ranges are called Duns.
* The region which is at an altitude of 500 to 3000 metres is also known as Purvachal.
* This region is covered by dense tropical rainforests.
Means of Livelihood
* The major means of livelihood is animal rearing that depends purely on the grasslands here
* Apart from potato, barley, and saffron, fruits like apple and orange are cultivated here.
* The largest production of tea in India comes from Assam mountain ranges.
The role played by these mountain ranges in moulding the climate and human life of India.
* Have been protecting us from foreign invasions from the north since ancient times.
* Block the monsoon winds and cause rainfall throughout North India.
* Prevent the dry cold winds blowing from the north from entering India during winter.
* Caused the emergence of diverse flora and fauna.
* Source region of rivers
* Numerous great rivers take birth through the confluence of streams originating from the melting snow. These rivers are known as Himalayan rivers.
* They are also enriched by the copious rain along the valleys
* Main Himalayan rivers - Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputhra
Formation of Himalayas
* Himalayas have been formed by the folding up of lithospheric plates due to convergence.
* During the formation of the Himalayas, a huge depression of more than 2000 metre depth took shape along the south parallel to the Himalayas.
* The plain, extending over seven lakh square kilometres and with kilometres of thick sediments, is one among the few extensive alluvial plains of the world is generally known as the Indus-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain.
Granary of India
* A variety of crops such as wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane, cotton, pulses, etc. are cultivated here. This region is known as the granary of India.
* Rainfall is scarce along the western parts of the northern plains. That is why most regions in Rajasthan are deserts. This desert is known as Thar Desert.
* The crops require very little amount of water to grow. Here cultivation is done mainly with the help of irrigation.
* Entire portions of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh as well as parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Odisha and West Bengal together form a plateau known as the peninsular plateau.
* Black soil is extensively found in this region made of igneous rocks, named basalt.
* The soil formed by the weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks is comparatively less fertile.
* The rivers originating from the elevated regions of the peninsular plateau are known as peninsular rivers.
* Godavari is the longest among the peninsular rivers.
* Major peninsular rivers –
Comparison between Himalayan & Peninsular Rivers
Human Life in Coastal Plains
* Fishing is the main occupation of the people in the coastal plains.
* Tourism also has great possibilities here. Rice and coconut are the major agricultural crops along the west coast.
* Lagoons, sandy beaches and coral reefs are the specialities of the Lakshadweep Island group.
* The only volcano in India is situated in the Barren Island in Andamans.
* The factors influencing the climate of India are:
Nearness to sea
* The seasons in India can be generally classified into four.
Cold weather season
Hot weather season
South-west monsoon season
Retreating monsoon season
* The Arabian Sea branch that reaches the coast of Kerala by early June causes heavy rainfall here. Then it advances to the states of Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra, and Gujarat and causes rainfall in the western parts.
* The Bay of Bengal branch of the monsoon advances northward by absorbing more moisture from the Bay of Bengal. On reaching West Bengal, crossing the Sundarban delta, it bifurcates into two branches.
* By the end of September, as the sun apparently shifts towards the Southern Hemisphere, intense high pressure develops over the northern plains.
* The north-east monsoon winds are dry winds that do not generally cause any rain in India.
* This season termed as north-east monsoon is actually a transition period between the rainy season and the forth coming winter.
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